Types of Models Used in Software Engineering

Software Engineering involves creating and designing new apps and software. Whenever a person wants to start making or designing, a lot of hindrances come on the way. For the final rollout, various steps must be considered to develop a successful project. Various steps included in making software are designing,

implementing, testing, and maintaining it regularly. Development and testing are the most important phases for successfully creating the software or project, irrespective of the kind of app or software. Enroll yourself in a software development course to explore more about the subject.

The creation of the software goes through a long development life cycle. It is known as the software development life cycle. It helps in navigating the demanding and complex process of software making.

Choosing the correct model for making software is very crucial important. This is because various aspects of the software depend majorly on such models. The budget, customer expectations, and timeframes depend on these models.

Currently, there are around 50 software engineering models which are in use. No model is said to be perfect because there are different advantages and disadvantages of each model. In this article, we have explained a few software engineering models which are the most popular today.


Outline of Software Engineering Models

The software engineering models can be categorized into various groups based on how they work and perform. They are also grouped based on the relationships they have with their customer and the team.

There is a sequential flow in the software engineering models. They are easy to use, manage, and implement. The process becomes more flexible and less rigid as we go higher in the model.

Some models also imply less customer involvement. Some are more cooperative and include customers more intensively. There are several online platforms that provide degree courses onlinecourses through online and Great Learning is considered the best.

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Types of Software Engineering Models

1. Waterfall

Waterfall model

In this model, the process moves to cascade through all the stages. Each stage of this model is strictly developed and documented. The requirements of software cannot be further re-evaluated in this model.

There is no scope to try the software until the last stage of development is completed. This model results in higher risks and unpredictable results. They are used for projects with strict rules and regulations and where well-known tools and technology are used.


2. Validation Model

It is also a linear model in which software testing goes on each of the corresponding testing activities. It is considered a time-consuming and expensive model because the workflow organization of this model denotes exceptional quality control.

The changes during the development phase of the software are also said to be an expensive task even though the mistakes and the architectural errors in this model can be early. This model is mainly used in cases where projects don’t accept failures and errors. E.g., Medical Software.


3. Incremental and Iterative Model

This model is used in the development process of the software and is divided into various iterations. In each iterationeach of the iteration, new software iterations are added.

These iterations have no or little change with the earlier modules. The development process of the software goes parallel. The delivery speed increases with the parallel development process.

The project becomes long and costly due to repeated iterations. The software changes on each iteration due to the iterative development. This model also includes customer involvement because few amendments are required in the development phase of the software.


4. Spiral Model

Spiral Model

The spiral model is well suited for the software’s risk assessment. To fully utilize this model, it is important to engage the person who has a strong background in the risk – assessment. There are four important activities in this spiral model, and they last up to 6 months.

These four activities are – planning, risk analysis, creation of protocols, and evaluation. Intensive customer involvement appears in this model.

Here in the development phase, customer amendments cannot be done. This model is used in projects which have unclear business needs and are large and complicated.


5. Rational Unified Process

This model is an amalgamation of linear and iterative models. This model divides software development into four phases – inception, construction, elaboration, and transition.

All the basic activities of softwareof the software development are done in parallel with these four activities. This model is not quick though it helps build stable, flexible solutions.


6. Software Production Process Models

The software production process is divided into two major categories. These categories are – operational and Non-operational. Both the models are software-developmentsoftware-developing process models.

There is aa a major difference between both these models. Operational models can be used in the process of the computation of scripts and programs.

They can also be used in programs that have a particular regime of software engineering and development. On the other hand, Non-operative models are used in projects which use conceptual knowledge and are suitable for coding and automated processing.


7. Timeboxing model

Timeboxing model

The time boxing model is similar to the iterative model. Because in this model, the development takes place iteratively. The difference lies in the fact that in the timeboxing model, the operation takes place in a fixedin fixed time duration.

The function of the time-box model is adjusted so that it fits in the given time duration of the time box. Each time box is further divided into a series of stages where each and every stage performs the given task independently.

In this model, the time duration of each stage is kept equal to the pipelining concept. A dedicated team is assigned to the different stages. Each stage performs the logical work, becoming the input for the next stage.


8. Miscellaneous Process Models

Many variations of the non-operational life cycle and process models have been proposed and appear in the proceedings of the international software process workshops sponsored by the ACM, IEEE, and Software Process Association.

These include fully interconnected life cycle models that accommodate transitions between any two phases subject to the satisfaction of their pre-and post-conditions, as well as compound variations on the traditional life cycle and continuous transformation models.

However, reports indicate that, in general, most software process models are exploratory, though there is now a growing base of experimental or industrial experience with these models.

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